This testing will look at some or all of the biomarkers that can be associated with cardiovascular health.
Total cholesterol comprises of all of the cholesterol found in the body for example; LDL, HDL and triglycerides. Lipoproteins are composed of lipids (triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids) and proteins (apoprotein) in various proportions.
High density lipoprotein (HDL) is composed of mainly phospholipids and apoproteins. It functions to carry cholesterol from the tissues back to the liver to be processed into bile salts. Because it takes cholesterol away from arteries it considered protective against atherosclerosis. HDL can carry 4 times the cholesterol compared to LDL, for this reason the ratio of both HDL and LDL is important.
Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is a lipoprotein that carries cholesterol and other fatty acids from the liver out to the tissues. Increased LDL coupled with low HDL is associated with an increased risk for atherosclerosis, diabetes type 2 and syndrome X.
Triglycerides are composed primarily of fatty acid molecules attached to a glycerol backbone. They are synthesised by the liver and enter the body from the diet. The enzyme lipoprotein lipase breaks the triglycerides down into glycerol and free fatty acids which used by the heart and muscles for energy. Extra calories from food are turned into triglycerides and stored inside fat cells for later use. Fasting triglycerides should be about half of the total cholesterol and abnormal levels of lipids can be associated with metabolic problems.
Homocysteine may be ordered as part of a screen for people at high risk for heart attack or stroke, or in someone who has a family history of coronary artery disease but no other known risk factors. Hcy can also be used to determine if a person has a vitamin B6, B12 or folate deficiency. The homocysteine concentration may be elevated before B12 and folate tests are abnormal.
This test is used to detect blood sugar dysregulation and dysglycemia in conjunction with other blood work and glucose tolerance testing.
Apolipoprotein A and B
Apolipoprotein A-1 is the major component of HDL and Apolipoprotein B is the major component of LDL. Elevated Apolipoprotein A-1 is believed to be a greater predictor of lower incidence of cardiovascular disease than HDL alone. Elevated apolipoprotein B is associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Both have been suggested to be better markers for cardiovascular disease than traditional lipid studies.
Is a type of lipoprotein that carries cholesterol in the blood. A Lp(a) test may be used to help determine your risk of developing heart disease and may be ordered with a lipid panel. Lipoprotein (a) is associated with atherosclerosis (blocked arteries)
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
LDH is an enzyme required for converting sugar into energy for your cells. LDH is widely present throughout the body, including the liver, heart, pancreas, kidneys, skeletal muscles, lymph tissue, and blood cells. When illness or injury damages your cells, LDH may be released into the bloodstream, causing the level of LDH in your blood to rise. This test has a wide range of uses.
MTHFR gene test
There are two MTHFR gene variants, called C677T and A1298C, that have been an active area of study. Those of us with a MTHFR gene mutation have a highly reduced ability to convert folic acid or even folate into a usable form. It is beginning to be understood that when you have these genetic SNP’s activated in the methylation cycle it/they can have a huge impact on our health through its effects on energy, hormones, mental health, fertility, detoxification and much more.